Friday, September 16, 2016

Searching for one's own faults-the cure for self-admiration:

Searching for one's own faults-cure for self-admiration:

Ibn Hazm (rahimahullah) said:

“Whoever is tested with self-admiration, let him think of his faults; if he admires his virtues, let him think of his bad manners and attitude. If he cannot find any, to the point that he thinks that he has no faults, then he should realise that his problem is chronic and that he is the most imperfect of men, and he has the most faults and least discernment.

That is because he is feeble-minded and ignorant; and there is no fault worse than these two, because the wise man is the one who can see faults in himself and tries to overcome them, whereas the foolish man is the one who is ignorant of his own faults.”

[al-Akhlaaq was-Siyar (p. 71)]

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Allah loves Kindness: Hadeeths on kindness

Importance of Kindness in Islam: 

(From Imām Nawawi's Riyadh us saliheen)

633. ‘A’isha reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah is kind and loves kindness in every matter.” [Agreed upon]

634. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Allah is kind and loves kindness and gives for gentleness what he does not give for harshness nor for anything else.” [Muslim]

635. ‘A’isha reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whenever kindness is in a thing it adorns it, and whenever it is removed from anything, it disfigures it.” [Muslim]

636. Abu Hurayra said, “A bedouin urinated in the mosque. The people moved towards him and the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘Let him be and pour a bucket or pail of water onto his urine. You were sent to make things easy and not to make them difficult.’” [al-Bukhari]

637. Anas reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Make things easy for people and do not make them difficult. Give good news to people and do not frighten them away.” [Agreed upon]

638. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Whoever is deprived of kindness is deprived of all good.’” [Muslim]

Saturday, June 18, 2016

How to repel doubts- Ibn Taymiyyah

Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah writes, 

“Shaykh Al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyyah), God be pleased with him, said to me, when I presented to him one objection (îrâd) after another, 

‘Do not make your heart like a sponge for objections and doubts, such that it cannot ripen but with them, but rather like polished glass, so doubts may pass over its surface but do not stay within: its purity makes you see them, and its firmness allows you to repel them’. 
Or something to this effect. I do not know of any other advice that has helped me repel doubts like this one”. 
-Sharaf Al-Dîn, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, p. 102; see Miftâ^ dâr Al-saâdah, Cairo, Matba'at Al-Saâdah, 1905, vol. 1, p. 148

Taken From:
Steps of the Seekers (Madarij al-Salikin) Translator’s Introduction BY DR OVAMIR ANJUM

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Eight Prophetic Objectives of Fasting

Eight Prophetic Objectives of Fasting

Behind every Prophetic Sunnah there are noble spiritual maqāsid (aims and objectives) to obtain beyond merely performing the physical act itself. In-sha-Allah, this article will assist in directing your attention towards the noble spiritual objectives of fasting. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Verily actions are in accordance to intention(s).” (Bukhari 1, Muslim 1907) In other words, a person will obtain the merit of his action in accordance to what he intends from his it. Therefore, it is important that we learn the Prophetic Objectives behind fasting so that our actions and intentions are in accordance to the spirit of Prophet Guidance.

The eight Prophet Objectives mentioned in this article are as follows: elevation in spiritual degree, expiation of sins, suppression of carnal desires, increasing in charity, increasing in worship, gratitude for Allah (The Knower of Hidden Affairs), prevention from the danger of sin and acting in contradiction to what is lawful, and feeding others who are fasting.

This article is generally a translation of an excerpt taken from the book, Maqāsid Al-Sawm, by the great Shafi Imam, Ibn Abdus Salam (660 AH), famously known as Sultan of The Scholars—may Allah bless him. Also, there are a few additions of Hadith which I have added to support the topic.

1. Elevation In Spiritual Degree

(1) The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

When the month of Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened, and the gates of Hellfire are closed, and the shaytans are shackled. (Bukhari 1899, Muslim 1709)

The opening of the gates of Paradise is in reference to the abundance of worship, which necessitates the opening of the gates of Paradise.

The closing of the gates of Hellfire is in reference to the small amount of sins, which necessitates the closing of the gates of the Fire.

 The shackling of shaytans is in reference to the blockage of their whispers from those who are fasting because theshaytans have no hope that those fasting will respond to sin.

(2) It is also reported in a Hadith Al-Qudsi that he ﷺ said:

Every action of Bani Adam (mankind) is for himself, except fasting. Verily it is for Me; I will reward him for it. Fasting is a shield, therefore, when any of you are fasting, he should not engage in rafath (obscene language), nor sakhab(raise his voice in dispute). If a person happens to curse or fight him, then he should say, “verily I am a person fasting!” By the one whose grasp holds the soul of Muhammad, the smell of the stomach/mouth of a fasting person is more beloved to Allah on the Day of Judgement than the scent of musk. The fasting person enjoys two spirits of joy: when he completes his fast and when he meets his Lord. (Bukhari 1904, Muslim 1151)

As for Allah’s statement, “Every action of Bani Adam (mankind) is for himself except fasting for verily it is for Me; I will reward him for it”, the attribution of reward to Allah is an expression of honour, because in fasting there is no riyā(doing something for the sake of people) since the action is hidden. Moreover, hunger and thirst are not a means of worshiping any king on earth or any idol and thus, this action is for Allah alone.

As for His statement, “I will reward him”, even though that is the case with all acts of worship, the meaning here is to indicate the magnitude of reward by stating that He himself will handle the affair of granting His favour.

As for sakhab, it refers to disputing.

As for His statement, “fasting is a shield” it is in reference to fasting being a protection from Allah’s punishment.

As for rafath, it refers to obscene language.

As for His statement, “he should say verily I am fasting” it is in reference to reminding himself of fasting.

As for his statement, “the smell of the stomach/mouth of a fasting person is more beloved to Allah on the Day of Judgement than the scent of musk”, this means the reward of a smelling stomach/mouth of a fasting person is more beloved to Allah on the Day of Judgement than the scent of musk.

As for the two spirits of joy, the first is due to being granted tawfīq (Allah’s providence) to complete an act of worship. The second is due to being granted Allah’s reward.

(3) It is also reported that he ﷺ said:

Every action of Bani Adam (mankind) is multiplied; good deeds are multiplied between ten to seven-hundred. Allah states, “except fasting for verily I will reward him [because] he abandons his shahwa (carnal desires) and food for me.” (Sahih Muslim 1151)

His statement, “he abandons his shahwa (carnal desires) and food for me” means that since the fasting person has chosen to worship his Lord rather than obey his nafs (self-desires)–in spite of the strong impulsive nature of shahwa–Allah has rewarded him personally Himself. Whoever has a strong intention to commit a sin but abandons it out of fear of Allah, verily Allah says to theHafadha (the angels that record deeds), “Write for him a reward because he abandoned his shahwa because of Me.” (Bukhari 7501, Muslim 128)

(4) The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

Verily in Jannah there is a gate called Al-Rayyān, the People of Fasting will enter it on the Day of Judgement. No person shall enter it besides them. It will be announced, “where are the People of Fasting?” and they will enter through it. When the last of them enters, the gate will be locked and no person shall enter it thereafter. (Bukhari1896, Muslim 1152)

(5) The same narration is reported with slightly different wording:

Verily in Paradise there is a gate called Al-Rayyān, the People of Fasting will be called to it. Whoever is from the People of Fasting will enter it. Whoever enters it, will never thirst again.(Nasāi 4/168, Tirmidhi 765, Ibn Majah 1640)

As for their special honour of entering Jannah through the gates of al-Rayyān, they have been chosen specifically because of their degree of fasting.

(6) The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

Verily the person who is fasting, the Angels supplicate for him when a person eats in front of him until he finishes.(Tirmidhi 785, Ibn Majah 1748)

As for the supplication of the Angels when a person is eating in front of him, that is because he overwhelmingly suppressed his nafs to abandon food that was present before him. Thus, this was a compelling cause for their supplications (that is, their supplications of mercy and forgiveness for him).

2. Expiation of Sins

(7) This is based on the statement of the Prophet ﷺ:

Ramadan to Ramadan is an expiation of sins occurring between them, if that person abandons major sins. (Muslim 233)

(8) In another Hadith the Prophet ﷺ stated:

Whoever fasts the month of Ramadan, with faith and anticipation of reward, his previous sins are forgiven.

Meaning, whoever has faith in it being obligatory and anticipates his reward from his Lord, his previous sins are forgiven.

3. Suppression of Carnal Desires

(9) Hunger and thirst suppress the desire to commit sin. This is understood from the Hadith of the Prophet ﷺ:

Oh young folk! Whoever amongst you has the means for al-bā’ah (dowry for marriage) then marry because it is most enforcing in lowering the gaze and most safeguarding of his chastity. Whoever does not have the means, then he should fast because it is a wijā.(Bukhari 1905, Muslim 1400)

The word al-bā’ah refers to the dowry for marriage.

The word wijālinguistically refers to the castration of a stud animal. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ referred to the suppression of carnal desires metaphorically in relation to castration because it removes desires. Therefore, what is meant by fasting being a wijā is that it suppresses the carnal desires.

(10) It is also reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

Verily Shaytan flows through Bani Adam like the flowing of blood. Thus, narrow the means of desire with hunger.(Bukhari 2039, Muslim 2175)

4. Increasing in Charity

(11) Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ was the utmost generous person in khair (bringing goodness and benefit to people). He was the utmost generous during the month of Ramadan…(Bukhari 1902, Muslim 2308)  

(12) It has been reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:

The best charity is charity [given] in Ramadan. (Tirmidhi 668, Shu’ub Al-Iman 3819)

5. Increasing in Worship

This is because when he is reminded about the hunger and thirst of people in the Hellfire, it encourages him to increase in worship in order to save himself from the fire.

6. Gratitude for Allah, The Knower of Hidden Affairs

When a person fasts, he becomes aware of Allah’s bounties upon him regarding satiation and quenching. Thus, he shows gratitude. The value of bounty is not realized until it is gone.

(13) It has been reported from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ that he said:

My lord presented to me the opportunity that He make the valley of Makkah gold for me. I replied, “O my Lord! But I [wish] to be satiated one day and hungry the next…When I am hungry, I humble myself before you and thank you. When I become satiated, I give thanks to you and praise you.(Tirmidhi 2378)

7. Prevention From the Danger of Sin and Acting in Contradiction to What is Lawful

That is because the nafs, when it is satiated, has an appetite for sin and yearns for things which contradict what is lawful. However, when it is hungry and thirsty it has an appetite for food and drink. The nafsturning its attention towards the thought of food and being occupied with that, is better than having an appetite for sin and wrong action. For this reason, some of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) preferred fasting over all other forms of worship. When they were asked why, they replied:

For Allah to see my soul pulling me towards food and drink is more beloved to me than Him seeing my soul when it is pulling me towards sin when it is satiated.

8. Feeding Others Who Are Fasting

(14) From the noble objectives of fasting is feeding other people who are breaking their fast. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ stated:

Whoever feeds a person who is breaking his fast, he gets the same reward as him without any subtraction from the reward of the fasting person. (Tirmidhi 807, Ibn Majah 1746)

Therefore, whoever feeds thirty-six people (who are breaking their fast) every year, it is as if he fasts an entire lifetime. Fasting also has many other benefits, such as, assisting in a healthy mind and body. It has been reported in a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Fast and you will be healthy.” (Al-Mu’jam Al-Awsat 8312, Al-Tibb Al-Nabawi by Abu Nu’aim 113)

May Allah make us from those who fast in accordance to Prophetic Guidance, in order to please Him and obtain the highest of rewards and closeness to Him, Ameen.

References:


  1. إذَا جَاءَ رَمَضَانُ فُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ وَصُفِّدَتْ الشَّيَاطِينُ   
  2. كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ لَهُ إِلَّا الصِّيَامَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ وَالصِّيَامُ جُنَّةٌ وَإِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ صَوْمِ أَحَدِكُمْ فَلَا يَرْفُثْ وَلَا يَصْخَبْ فَإِنْ سَابَّهُ أَحَدٌ أَوْ قَاتَلَهُ فَلْيَقُلْ إِنِّي امْرُؤٌ صَائِمٌ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَخُلُوفُ فَمِ الصَّائِمِ أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنْ رِيحِ الْمِسْكِ لِلصَّائِمِ فَرْحَتَانِ يَفْرَحُهُمَا إِذَا أَفْطَرَ فَرِحَ وَإِذَا لَقِيَ رَبَّهُ فَرِحَ بِصَوْمِهِ  
  3. كُلُّ عَمَلِ ابْنِ آدَمَ يُضَاعَفُ الْحَسَنَةُ بِعَشْرِ أَمْثَالِهَا إِلَى سَبْعِ مِائَةِ ضِعْفٍ يَقُولُ اللُه إِلَّا الصَّوْمَ فَإِنَّهُ لِي وَأَنَا أَجْزِي بِهِ يَدَعُ شَهْوَتَهُ وَطَعَامَهُ مِنْ أَجْلِي  
  4. إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ بَابًا يُقَالُ لَهُ الرَّيَّانُ يَدْخُلُ مِنْهُ الصَّائِمُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يَدْخُلُ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُهُمْ يُقَالُ أَيْنَ الصَّائِمُونَ فَيَدْخُلُونَ مِنْهُ فَإِذَا دَخَلَ آخِرُهُمْ أُغْلِقَ فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ مِنْهُ أَحَدٌ  
  5. إِنَّ لِلْجَنَّةِ بَابًا يُقَالُ لَهُ الرَّيَّانُ  يُدْعَى لَهُ الصَّائِمُونَ مَنْ كَانَ مِنَ الصَّائِمِينَ دَخَلَهُ لَمْ يَظْمَأْ أَبَدًا  
  6. إنَّ الصَّائِمَ تُصَلِّي عَلَيْهِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ إذَا أُكِلَ عِنْدَهُ حَتَّى يَفْرُغُوا  
  7. وَ رَمَضَانُ إِلَى رَمَضَانَ مُكَفِّرَاتٌ لِمَا بَيْنَهُنَّ إِذَا اجْتُنِبَتِ الْكَبَائِرُ  
  8. مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ  
  9. يَا مَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنْ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمْ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيَتَزَوَّجْ فَإِنَّهُ أَغَضُّ لِلْبَصَرِ وَ أَحْصَنُ لِلْفَرْجِ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاءٌ   
  10. إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ لَيَجْرِي مِنِ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّمِ فَضَيِّقُوا مَجَارِيَهُ  
  11. However, note that the last part of the Hadith, “thus, narrow the means of desire with hunger”is not in Buhkari and Muslim. Allah knows best.  
  12.  كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَجْوَدَ النَّاسِ بِالْخَيْرِ وَكَانَ أَجْوَدُ مَا يَكُونُ فِي رَمَضَانَ حِينَ يَلْقَاهُ جِبْرِيلُ  
  13. Here I have added these two Hadith (which Ibn Abdus Salam did not mention in his book) because they explicitly mention the virtue of increasing in charity during Ramadan. Under this section Ibn Abdus Salam mentioned the following: This is because the fasting person, when hungry, he is reminded of what it feels like and this encourages him to feed the hungry. It is said in poetry, “ Verily those who have mercy upon those affected by deep love are those who are affected by love.” It has been reported that Prophet Sulaiman (or Prophet Yusuf, may Allah’s peace and blessing be upon them both) never used to eat until all of his devotees ate. When he was asked why, he replied, “I fear that if I fill my stomach, I will forget the hungry.”  
  14. This Hadith is not part of Ibn Abdul Salam’s book. I added it because it is a clear example of Prophetic Gratitude, which fits in perfectly with the subject here. Allah knows best.  
  15. عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ , قَالَ وَحُدِّثْنَا بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ عَرَضَ عَلَيَّ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِيَجْعَلَ لِي بَطْحَاءَ مَكَّةَ ذَهَبًا فَقُلْتُ لَا يَا رَبِّ وَلَكِنْ أَشْبَعُ يَوْمًا وَأَجُوعُ يَوْمًا أَوْ نَحْوَ ذَلِكَ  فَإِذَا جُعْتُ , تَضَرَّعْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَذَكَرْتُكَ وَإِذَا شَبِعْتُ حَمِدْتُكَ  وَشَكَرْتُكَ                                                - Taken from hadithguidance.com of Ustadh Abdus Shakur Brooks 

Doing Dua to live and die with the righteous: Quranic Duas

Doing Dua to live and die with the righteous:

The Quran prescribes to adopt righteous company at all levels and stages of existence in both the worlds. 

We are commanded to live with the righteous, die with the righteous and even to enter the Jannah with the righteous.

And this applies to every single person. Even the Prophets have prayed for the righteous company.

Some of these verses are given below:

Allah says:
  "So, enter among My [righteous] servants and enter My paradise." (Quran, 89:29).

Here, Allah says about the purest and most pious people who have attained 'Nafs e mutmainnah' (the contented soul) that they will first be asked to enter the fold of righteous slaves, and then to enter the Paradise. 

This indicates that entry into Paradise depends on their being, first and foremost, in the fold of the righteous believers. Then they will all enter Paradise together. 

This also shows that a person joining the company of the righteous in this world is a sign that he will enter Paradise with them.

Even the prophets of Allah prayed to be joined with the righteous:

The Prophet Sulaiman عليه سلم  prayed:
وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ
"..and admit me, by Your mercy, among Your righteous slaves." [27:19]

The Prophet Yusuf عليه سلم  prayed:
تَوَفَّنِي مُسْلِمًا وَأَلْحِقْنِي بِالصَّالِحِينَ
"Cause me to die a Muslim and join me with the Righteous." (12:101)

Allah has taught us to pray that even the death comes among the righteous:

رَّبَّنَا إِنَّنَا سَمِعْنَا مُنَادِيًا يُنَادِي لِلْإِيمَانِ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِرَبِّكُمْ فَآمَنَّا ۚ رَبَّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرْ عَنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ الْأَبْرَارِ

"Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller calling to faith, [saying], 'Believe in your Lord,' and we have believed. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die with the righteous."
Holy Quran, 3:193

آمين يا رب العالمين 

Saturday, June 11, 2016

The Etiquette for Allah’s Remembrance (Dhikr): Imam Sharani

The Etiquette for Allah’s Remembrance (Dhikr)

There are 26 points mentioned by Imam Sha’rani in his book Adab al-Suhba to observe when making dhikr of Allah.

Pre-dhikr

  1. Make sincere repentance
  2. Make a ghusl (bath) or Wudu
  3. Apply fragrance to your clothing and mouth
  4. Purify your intention (that it be solely to fulfil Allah’s command)
  5. Carry with you the reverence of Allah

During dhikr

  1. Sit in a clean place in the tashahhud position as in salat
  2. Place your palms on your thighs
  3. Face the qibla if alone, or form a circle when in a group
  4. Apply fragrance to the gathering place
  5. Maintain sincerity throughout
  6. Maintain truthfulness throughout
  7. Keep your food and clothing lawful
  8. Darken the gathering place
  9. Keep your eyes closed
  10. Maintain focus on the meaning of the remembrance
  11. Do not include anyone other then Allah in remembrance
  12. Banish all others from the heart besides Allah
  13. Do the remembrance audibly [or silently if that is prescribed]
  14. Do it with full energy
  15. Imagine your Shaykh in front of you (supervising you to check whether you are following the aadaab properly)
  16. Avoid mistakes in your pronunciation

Post dhikr

  1. Censure yourself for a few moments on your inabilities
  2. Avoid drinking anything for a few moments
  3. Remain silent for a while
  4. Anticipate the benefits of dhikr to be absorbed
  5. Thank Allah for enabling your remembrance and seek forgiveness for any shortcomings
From Mufti Abdur Rahman Yusuf's lecture series blog. 

Saturday, May 7, 2016

The Spiritual Purpose of Muslim conquests:

The effect which Islam exerted on the education of its followers in the first period of Islam by the purification of their souls, polishing of their minds, the sincerity of their beliefs and actions and sincere love and well wishing for the mankind ensured that their participation in the military campaigns against other lands was not primarily motivated by any worldly ambition. 

Rather, it was the compelling desire to propagate Islam, to enable it to take firm root in these lands and to organize and administer the newly-conquered territories. 

It was the wish to solve the various problems of these lands, and any new problems which might arise, in accordance with the true teachings of Islam. 

The Muslims were not motivated by any desire to dominate those peoples or to acquire their wealth, nor were they attempting to escape from the hardship of life in the desert, as has been maintained by the Orientalists.

Mission of Muslims is to liberate all of Humanity:

نحن قوم ابتعثنا الله لنخرج العباد من عبادة العباد إلى عبادة رب العباد، ومن ضيق الدنيا إلى سعة الآخرة، ومن جور الأديان إلى عدل الإِسلام

Al Tabari narrated that just before the start of the important battle of Qadisiyya, Rabi` ibn `Amir رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  entered the court of Rustum, the Persian commander, who asked him: “What brought you here?”

Rabi` رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  said: “God sent us, and He brought us here in order to lead whom He wills from the worship of man to the worship of God alone; from the narrowness and oppression of this world to the vastness and abundance of the hereafter; and from the injustice of other religions to the justice of Islam.”

What Rabi` ibn `Amir, رضي الله ﺗﻌﺎﻟﯽٰ عنه  the representative of the Muslims, said to the Persians was not only the expression of his personal feelings. Rather, it voiced the thought which was predominant among the Muslim leadership and most of the Mujahidin. 

This does not exclude the possibility that some of the Bedouin who had participated in the military expeditions had been attracted by the prospects of material gains and booty, in addition to the desire for jihad; but these Bedouin did not represent either the leadership of the movement or its motivating spirit and were only a small minority in the Muslim armies. 

Adapted from 'Madinan Society at the Time of the Prophet' by Dr Akram umari